Application of Health Belief Model to assess Knowledge and Attitude of Women Regarding Preconception Care

Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 MSc Student in Counseling in Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background & aim: Effective preconception care requires childbearing women's knowledge and attitude to improve maternal and neonatal health by the early recognition of risk factors related to pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of Iranian women regarding preconception health based on the health belief model.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 110 married women aged 15-49 years in Mashhad, Iran, during 2016. Sampling was carried out through a multi-stage process. Data collected using questionnaires on demographic and obstetric data, knowledge and preconception risk assessment as well as health belief model questionnaire encompassing four constructs of perceived barriers, sensitivity, severity, and benefits, which considered as attitude. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson’s correlation, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: The knowledge of preconception care was poor in 36.4% of cases and moderate in 63.6% of participants. The score of attitude were neutral and good among 79.1% and 20.9% of participants, respectively. The scores of constructs of sensitivBackground & aim: Effective preconception care requires childbearing women's knowledge and attitude to improve maternal and neonatal health by the early recognition of risk factors related to pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of Iranian women regarding preconception health based on the health belief model.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 110 married women aged 15-49 years in Mashhad, Iran, during 2016. Sampling was carried out through a multi-stage process. Data collected using questionnaires on demographic and obstetric data, knowledge and preconception risk assessment as well as health belief model questionnaire encompassing four constructs of perceived barriers, sensitivity, severity, and benefits, which considered as attitude. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson’s correlation, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: The knowledge of preconception care was poor in 36.4% of cases and moderate in 63.6% of participants. The score of attitude were neutral and good among 79.1% and 20.9% of participants, respectively. The scores of constructs of sensitivity (80%), severity (77.3%) and perceived barriers (67.9%) were neutral, and only the construct of perceived benefit was at a good level among most women (63.3%). The scores of the all constructs had a significant correlation with scores of knowledge and attitude (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The majority of women had moderate knowledge and neutral attitude regarding preconception care. Therefore, educational intervention based on a health belief model is recommended to improve the knowledge and attitude of women and develop preconception care behaviors in these individuals.ity (80%), severity (77.3%) and perceived barriers (67.9%) were neutral, and only the construct of perceived benefit was at a good level among most women (63.3%). The scores of the all constructs had a significant correlation with scores of knowledge and attitude (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The majority of women had moderate knowledge and neutral attitude regarding preconception care. Therefore, educational intervention based on a health belief model is recommended to improve the knowledge and attitude of women and develop preconception care behaviors in these individuals.

Keywords


Introduction


Preconception care targets women's health care before pregnancy (1). This care aimed at the identifications of the risk factors associated with fertility and reduction of these risks through appropriate training, prevention, and treatment (2). Preconception care as a supplement to prenatal care can improve the outcome and health status of women by the implementation of a long-term approach (3). Nearly half of the pregnancies are unplanned in the United States (4). The review of 49 studies indicated that the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy in Iran is 30.6% (5). Moreover, one-third of all pregnancies in Mashhad are unintended (6).

Despite the integration of preconception care in maternal care program of all medical universities of the country since 2006 (7), the preconception care rate is still low in Iran. In a study conducted in Iran during 2013, more than 50% of women performed no preconception care (8). According to the current review, the majority of studies in the field of preconception care have reported that the level of knowledge, attitude, or performance is below the expected levels of preconception care behavior. The lack of knowledge about preconception care has also been reported among women in Italy (9), Ethiopia (10), Jordan (11), England (12), Denmark (13), and Egypt (14).

In a study performed by Barchloo et al. (2013), it was reported that 59.9% and18.5% of women had moderate and weak knowledge about folic acid consumption and knowledge, respectively. In addition, 37.6% of the subjects had a false attitude toward the effects of folic acid, whereas 34.5% of the participants were unaware of the effects of folic acid (15). In a recent study, Firouzi and Ebrahimi (2017) declared that knowledge and attitude regarding preconception care had not been investigated previously. Accordingly, they suggested to implement further studies in this field and evaluate performance and effective factors in this regard (16). Moreover, Bayrami et al. concluded that before pregnancy, women require to be educated on issues related to prenatal care to prevent potential health problems (8). On the other hand, ShamshiriMilani et al. (2016) indicated that limited knowledge and community's unawareness about preconception care and services in healthcare centers were considered as the most perceived barriers posed by participants (17). In health education, two variables of knowledge and attitude are important behavioral determinants. Knowledge is considered as the base in the study of the perception of risk and beliefs while attitude plays a role as a predisposing an individual factor in affecting behaviors (18).

The use of models of health education will help researchers recognize the factors affecting health behaviors. Among health education models, the health belief model is one of the most effective models in the cognitive psychology to determine health behaviors that shows the relationship between health beliefs and health behaviors and emphasizes on the intrinsic factors of individuals, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behavior (19, 20). The health belief model was the first theory, exclusively used for "health-related behaviors", in particular for designing programs to prevent inappropriate health behaviors that are based on people's attitudes and beliefs. This model encompasses four main concepts, including sensitivity, severity, benefits and perceived barriers (20).

 Today, it is believed that individuals must feel threatened by their current behavioral patterns to succeed in behavioral change, as desired in the health belief model. In addition, they must believe that a particular type of behavior leads to a valuable outcome with an acceptable outcome (21). Therefore, in order to conduct a healthy behavior (e.g., preconception care), one must believe that s/he is susceptible to the disease (perceived susceptibility), fully understand the depth of the risk and the seriousness of its various complications in his/her life (perceived severity), and consider the proposed behaviors, such as preconception care, useful to reduce the risk or severity of the disease (perceived benefits) to overcome the inhibiting factors (perceived barriers) (22).

Preconception care is considered a preventive measure in the provision of maternal and neonatal health. Therefore, it is important to employ a health belief model in studies related to preventive health behaviors and investigate the role of knowledge and attitude as well as health belief model on intra-individual factors (e.g., knowledge and attitude). Given the above-mentioned issues and the lack of research on the use of the health belief model in assessing women's knowledge and attitudes regarding preconception care, this st

  1. Kermack AJ, Macklon N. Preconception care and fertility. Minerva Ginecologica. 2013; 65(3):253-269.
  2. Cunningham F, Leveno K, Bloom S, Spong CY, Dashe J. Williams obstetrics. 24th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
  3. Bialystok L, Poole N, Greaves L. Preconception care: call for national guidelines. Canadian Family Physician. 2013; 59(10):1037-1039.
  4. Dott M, Rasmussen SA, Hogue CJ, Reefhuis J. Association between pregnancy intention and reproductive-health related behaviors before and after pregnancy recognition, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2002. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2010; 14(3):373-381.
  5. Moosazadeh M, Nekoei‐moghadam M, Emrani Z, Amiresmaili M. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in Iran: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2014; 29(3):e277-e290.
  6. Kiani M, Khakshour A, Vakili R, Saeedi M, Mosavi Gagarmi SM. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and its related factors in women Mashhad city in 2013. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 5(2):421-429.
  7. Health vice chancellery Fhapo, ministry of health and medical education. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 2012.
  8. Bayrami R, Taghipour A, Ebrahimipoor H, Moradi S. Investigating women’s lifestyle during the preconception period in Kalat County, Iran. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health. 2014; 2(2):128-135.
  9. Bortolus R, Oprandi NC, Morassutti FR, Marchetto L, Filippini F, Tozzi AE, et al. Why women do not ask for information on preconception health? A qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2017; 17(1):5.
10. Ayalew Y, Mulat A, Dile M, Simegn A. Women’s knowledge and associated factors in preconception care in adet, west gojjam, northwest Ethiopia:
a community based cross sectional study. Reproductive Health. 2017; 14(1):15.

11. Al-Akour N, Sou’Ub R, Mohammad K, Zayed F. Awareness of preconception care among women and men: a study from Jordan. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2015; 35(3):246-250.

12. Stephenson J, Patel D, Barrett G, Howden B, Copas A, Ojukwu O, et al. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e103085.

13. Friberg AK, Jorgensen FS. Few Danish pregnant women follow guidelines on periconceptional use of folic acid. Danish Medical Journal. 2015; 61(3):A5019.

14. Al-Darzi W, Al-Mudares F, Farah A, Ali A, Marzouk D. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2014; 20(9):561-568.

15. Barchloo K, Karbord AA. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of primiparous women about the use of folic acid before and during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Edrak. 2013; 8(30):35-40.

16. Firouzi M, Ebrahimi A. Knowledge and attitudes of women about preconception care. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal. 2017; 10(12):62-68.

17. ShamshiriMilani H, Khazaie F, Rassouli M, Ramezankhani A. Explanation of women’s and family health care personnel’s perception of the barriers of pre-pregnancy care coverage: a qualitative study. Journal of Health in the Field. 2016; 4(3):18-27.

  1. 18.  Shojaei Zadeh D, Heidar Nia A, Ghofrani Pour F, Pak Pour A, Safari M. Theories, models and methods of health education and health promotion. Tehran: Sobhan Publication; 2012.
19. Janz NK, Becker MH. The health belief model: a decade later. Health Education Quarterly. 1984; 11(1):1-47.

20. Didarloo A, Shojaeizadeh D, Mohammadian H. Health promotion programs based on behavior change models. Tehran: Sobhan Publishing Institute; 2009.

21. Saffari M, Shojaeizadeh D. Health education and health promotion principles and basics. Tehran: Publication Institute of Samat; 2008.

22. Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.

23. Champion VL. Instrument development for health belief model constructs. Advances in Nursing Science. 1984; 6(3):73-85.

24. Witte K. Putting the fear back into fear appeals: the extended parallel process model. Communications Monographs. 1992; 59(4):329-349.

25. Rezaei M, Mohammadinia N, Heidari N, Pejmankhah S. Awareness on taking folic acid among pregnant women who referred to heath centers in Iranshahr city. Community Health Journal. 2010; 5:53-61.

26. Rahimi SF, Zareban I, Shahrakipour M. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavior in the field of urinary tract infection among the pregnant women consulted in health centers Zahedan City, Iran, based on the health belief model (HBM). Health System Research. 2016; 12(1):114-118.