Health Promoting Life Style and Its Related Factors in Female Adolescents

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Lecturer, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 MSc in Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 a) Assistant professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran b) Department of Psychiatria, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Background & aim: One of the main strategies for keeping health is having healthy life style. Due to important role of adolescent health in community health promotion, this study aimed to determine health promoting life style in adolescent girls of high schools and its associated factors in Mashhad, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 810 girls ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old, who were studying in high schools and selected using cluster sampling from in Mashhad, Iran in 2013. They completed a demographic questionnaire as well as Adolescent Health Promotion (AHP) scale. Data were analyzed by statistical tests of Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Freedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation coefficient and General linear model.
Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.51±0.98 and the mean score of life style was 63.92±12.01. The highest score of life style subscales was allocated to the spiritual growth or life-appreciation (77.66±15.56) and the least to the physical and sport activities (51.66±22.49). There was a significant relationship between the life style score of adolescents with parents’ educational level (mother P=0.024, father P=0.014). However no significant relationship was found between adolescents' life style and their residential area and also parent's job. Among different dimensions of life style, the highest correlation was seen between spiritual growth and life style total score (P=0.01).
Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is necessary to prioritize implementing of healthrelated educational programs in order to changing and modification of unhealthy life style related factors, with focus on sport activities as well as health and nutrition. Also it is needed to provide special facilities to select healthy living behaviors among adolescents


1. Adams MH, Bowden AG, Humphery DS, Mc Adams LB. Social support and health promotion lifestyles of rural women. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care 2000. Available from Social support and health promotion lifestyles of rural women.- a0174057673 (accessed September 22 2013).
2. Ochieng BM. Factors affecting choice of a healthylifestyle: implications for nurses. British Journal of Community Nursing 2006; 11(2):78-81.
3. Spratt J, Shucksmith J, Philip K, Watson C. Part of who we are as a school should include responsibility for well-being: links between the school environment, mental health and behavior.
Pastoral Care in Education 2006; 24: 14-21.
4. Amir Khani M, Motlagh M, Sedaght M, Namazy R, Ardalan G, Haghdost A, et al. Health status, risky health behaviors of students based on academic year 2006-2007. Isfahan: Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 2008. Persian.
5. Rafifar S, Ahmadzadasl M ,Esmaily M, Dezhpasand S, Parsinia S, Khosronjad M, et al. Health promotion. Tehran: Mehrravash 2005. Persian.
6. Tashiro J. Exploring health promoting lifestyle behaviors of Japanese college women: perceptions, practices, and issues. Health Care for Women International 2002; 23(1):59-70.
7. Baroogh NS. Nuktehdan H. Kazemnejad A. Nuruzi E. Comparing the lifestyles of first and final term
female BS nursing students. Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery 2003; 9(1-2):55-62. Persian.
8. Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year followup study. The Lancet 2008; 371: 9626: 1783-89.
9. World Health Organization. The European Health Report 2009: Health and Health Systems. 2009. Available from data/assets/pdf_file/0009/82386/E93103.pdf (accessed September 22 2013).
10. Babanejad M, Khesht Zarin H, Sayehmiri K, Delpisheh A. Lifestyle investigation and its associated factors in students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Pejouhandeh 2012; 17(5):252- 7. Persian.
11. Alikhani S. Research on adolescent health programs and schools. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education 1380.
12. Vice President Office of Strategic Planning and supervising, Statistical Center of Iran, Population and Housing Census, Tehran 2007
13. Motlagh M, Kelishadi R, Heshmat, R, Amynayy T, Dashti M, Ardalan G. Study of health-related behaviors of students. Tehran: Vista, 2009-2010.
14. Statistical Centre of Iran, Iran Statistical Yearbook 2003: Population by Age and Sex, 1996 Census (2011). Available from: http://www.sci. [Online access: Jan 2011].
15. Norman M. Kaplan MD. Lifestyle modifications for prevention and treatment of hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 2004, 6(12):716- 719.
16. Neumark Sztainer, D. Eating among teens: Do family mealtimes make a difference foradolescents' nutrition? New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 2006; 111: 91-105.
17. Rew L, Horner SD. Youth Resilience Framework for Reducing Health-Risk Behaviors in Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2003; 18(6):379-387.
18. DiIorio C, Kelley M, Hockenberry-Eaton M. Communication about sexual issues: Mothers, fathers, and friends. Journal of Adolescent Health 1999; 24(3):181-189.
19. Whitaker DJ, Miller KS, May DC, Levin ML. Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: The importance of parentteenager discussions. Family Planning Perspectives 1999; 31(3):117-121.
20. Lee RL, Loke AJ. Health-Promoting Behaviors and Psychosocial Well-Being of University Students in Hong-Kong. Public Health Nursing 2005; 22(3):209-220.
21. Wang D, Quen C, Chen M, Duan N. Healthpromoting lifestyles of university students in Mainland China. Bio Med Central Public Health 2009; 9:379.
22. Ortabag T, Ozdemir S, Bakir B, Tosun N. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents in Turkey. The Journal of School Nursing 2011; 27(4):304-315
23. Motlagh Z, Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad S, Momayyezi M. Study of Health-promotion behaviors among university of medical science students. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2011; 13(4): 29-34. Persian.
24. Tol A, Tavassoli E, Shariferad GR, Shojaezadeh D. The relation between health-promoting lifestyle and quality of life in undergraduate students at school of health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Journal Health System. 2011; 7(4):442- 448. Persian.
25. Can G, Ozdilli K, Erol O, Unsar, S, Tulek Z, Savaser S, et al. Comparison of the health–promoting lifestyles of nursing and non nursing students in Istanbu, Turkey. Nursing & Health Sciences 2008; 10(4): 273-280.
26. Lee RL, Loke AJ. Health Promoting behaviors and psychosocial well-being of university students in Hong Kong. Public Health Nursing 2005; 22(3):209-220.
27. Al-Kandari F, Vidal VL, Thomas D. Health –promoting lifestyles and body mass index among college of nursing students in Kuwait: A correlational study. Nursing & Health Sciences 2008; 10(1):43-50.
28. Al-Kandari F, Vidal VL. Correlation of the health – promoting lifestyle, enrollment level, and academic performance of college of nursing students in Kuwait. Nursing & Health Sciences 2007; 9(2):112-119.
29. Buttris S. Nutrition health and school children.Nutrition Bulletin 2002; 27:275-80.
30. Mohammadian H, Eftekhar Ardebili H, Taghdisy MH, Mousavi GA, Sabahi Bidgoli M. Psychometric properties of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP II) in a sample of Iranian adolescents. Journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research 2013; 12(2):370-404. Persian.
31. Rahnavard Z, Zolfaghari M, Kazemnejad A, zarei L. The relation between female teenagers lifestyle and osteoporosis prevention. Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery 2003; 2(12):53-61. Persian.
32. Mazloomy Mahmoodabad SS, Mehri A, Morowatisharifabad MA. The relationship of health behavior with selfesteem and self-efficacy in students of Yazd Shahid Sadooghi University of Medical Sciences (2005). Strides in Development of Medical Education 2006; 3(2):111-117. Persian.
33. Mansourian M, Ghorbani M, Solaimani MA, Masoodi R, Rahimi E,Asayesh H, et al. A Survey of lifestyle and its influential Factors Among the University Student in Gorgan. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 2009; 7(1):62-69. Persian.
34. Chen MY, James K, Wang EK. Comparison of health-promoting behavior between Taiwanese and American adolescents: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Journal of Nursing Studies 2007; 44(1):59-69.
35. Peker K, Bermark G. Predictors of healthpromoting behaviors among freshman dental students at Istanbul University. Journal of Dental Education 2011; 75(3):413-420.
36. Hong JF, Sermsri S, Keiwkarna B. Healthpromoting lifestyle of nursing students in Mahidol University. Journal of Public Health and Development 2007; 5(1):27-40.
37. Kreutz G, Ginsborg J, Williamon A. Healthpromoting behaviours in conservatoire students. Psychology of Music 2009; 37(1):47-60.